Bayani na Marmaray

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray
• Akwai duka tsawon 13.500 m, wanda ya qunshi 27000 m, kowane ɗayan an haɗa shi da layi biyu.
• An yi amfani da wurin saukarwa tare da rami mai nutsewa da layin 1 rami mai zurfin rami shine 1386.999 m, Layin 2 nutsewa rami shine 1385.673 m.
• Ana bayar da ci gaba da rami mai zurfi a cikin Asiya da Turai ta hanyar yin amfani da hakowa .. Tsawon layin matattarar 1 ya zama 10837 m, kuma layin 2 rafin hakowa shine 10816 m.
• Hanya ita ce hanya mai kyalli a cikin rami kuma wata hanya ce mai karatuwa a wajen rami.
• raarfirin da aka yi amfani da shi shine UIC 60 da kuma taurarewar naman kaza.
• Abubuwan haɗin haɗi sune nau'in HM, wanda shine nau'in roba.
• An yi jerin gwanon tsawon 18 m cikin manyan rakoki da aka fi so.
• An yi amfani da toshewar LVT a cikin rami.
• Ana gudanar da aikin titin Marmaray tare da sabbin injunan tsarin ta hanyar gudanar da mu ba tare da wani tsangwama ba daidai da littafin Tsarin Kula da Hanyar TCDD da kuma tsarin kula da kamfanonin masana'antun da aka shirya daidai da ka'idojin EN da UIC.
• Ana yin gwajin gani na layin yau da kullun a kowace rana, kuma ana gudanar da binciken ultrasonic na rails a kowane wata tare da injiniyoyi masu hankali.
• Ana kulawa da kula da tasoshin ruwa daidai da ka'idoji iri ɗaya.
• Ana gudanar da sabis na kulawa tare da Manajan 1, Mai Kula da Kulawa da Kulawa da 1, Injiniya 4, Kulawa da 3 da ma'aikatan 12 a cikin Kula da Kulawa da Gaggawa na Cibiyar Marmaray.

Figures

TOTAL LINE LENGTH 76,3 km
Tsawon Sashen Mita na Lantarki 63 km
- Yawan Gidaje a Kasa 37 Pieces
Jimlar Leng na Railway Madaidaiciyar Tube tsallaka Sashe 13,6km
- Tsayin Ruwa na Layi 9,8 km
- Tsayin Ruwa na Ruwa 1,4km
- Buɗe - Tsawon Filin Layi 2,4 km
- Lambar Gidauniyar Kasa 3 guda
Tsawon Tashar 225m (mafi ƙaranci)
Yawan fasinjoji a Hanyar Daya 75.000 fasinja / awa / hanya ɗaya
Matsakaicin Maɗaukaki 18
Matsayi mafi girma 100 km / h
Saurin Kasuwanci 45 km / h
Adadin Jadawalin jirgin kasa Mintuna na 2-10
Yawan motocin 440 (2015 shekara)

KYAUTA TUNNEL

Ruwa mai zurfi ya ƙunshi abubuwa da yawa waɗanda aka samar a busassun ƙofar jirgin ruwa ko kuma jirgin ruwa. Waɗannan abubuwan ana jan su zuwa ga wurin, ana nutsar dasu a cikin tashoshi kuma an haɗa su don ƙirƙirar halin ƙarshe na rami.

A cikin adadi da ke ƙasa, ana ɗaukar kaya daga katamaran docking barge zuwa wani wuri mai nutsuwa. (Tama River rami a Japan)

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray

Hoton da ke sama ya nuna hotunan ƙananan tube wanda aka samar a cikin jirgi. Wadannan shambura suna ja kamar jirgin kuma sun koma wani shafin da za'a kammala da kuma kammala (a sama da sama) [Osaka ta Osaka ta Kudu a Japan (tare da titin da hanya) Tunnel (Kobe Port Minatojima Tunnel a Japan).

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray

sama. Kawasaki Harbour Tunnel in Japan. dama. Tunnel ta Kudu Osaka Harbour a Japan. Dukansu ƙare biyu na abubuwa an rufe su ta ɗan gajeren lokaci; Saboda haka, lokacin da aka sake ruwa da tafkin da aka yi amfani da ita don gina abubuwa sun cika da ruwa, wadannan abubuwa zasu yarda su yi iyo cikin ruwa. (Hotunan da aka karɓa daga wata littafin da kungiyar Ƙungiyar Harkokin Gudanar da Nazarin Jirgin Samaniya da Rubuce-rubuce ta Lissafi ta buga.)

Tsawon ramin da aka nutse a bakin gabar ruwa na Bosporus kusan kilomita 1.4 ne, gami da alaƙar da ke tsakanin rami mai zurfin rami da kuma bututun. Ramin babbar hanyar haɗi ne a cikin layin dogo biyu masu ƙetara ƙasa da Bosphorus; wannan rami yana tsakanin yankin Eminönü da ke gabashin birnin Istanbul da kuma Üsküdar gundumar Asiya. Dukkanin layin dogo guda biyu suna fadada cikin abubuwan rami daya kuma suna rabasu da juna ta bangon rabuwa ta tsakiya.

A lokacin karni na ashirin, an gina harsuna fiye da ɗari don gina hanya ko hanyar zirga-zirga a ko'ina cikin duniya. An gina gine-ginen da ake ginawa a matsayin wuri mai tsabta sannan kuma aka yi amfani da shi a cikin wani tashar da aka rigaya aka rufe sannan an rufe ta da murfin murfin. Wajibi ne su kasance masu isasshen nauyi don hana su daga yin iyo bayan an saka su.

An kafa ma'anar da aka gina a cikin jerin jerin ramin da aka samar da su a cikin tsaka-tsalle masu yawa; kowanne daga cikin waɗannan abubuwa shine 100 mai tsawo tsawon lokaci, kuma a ƙarshen rami na ramin waɗannan abubuwa an haɗa su kuma sun shiga ƙarƙashin ruwa don su zama tushen karshe na ramin. Kowane ɓangaren yana da saitunan kwaskwarimar da aka sanya a cikin lokaci na ƙarshe; wadannan jigo suna bada izinin abubuwa su yi iyo yayin da ciki ya bushe. An ƙaddamar da tsarin ƙaddamarwa a tashar jirgin ruwa, ko kuma an kaddamar da abubuwa zuwa cikin teku kamar jirgin ruwa sannan kuma a samar da su a cikin sassa mai tasowa a kusa da filin taron karshe.

Abubuwan da ke cikin ruwa bututun da ake samarwa kuma an kammala su a busasshiyar jirgin ruwa ko a filin jirgin ruwa sai a zana su zuwa wurin; nutsewa cikin tashoshi kuma an haɗa shi don samar da yanayin ƙarshe na rami. A gefen hagu: An ja kayan zuwa wurin da za'a gudanar da ayyukan taro na ƙarshe don nutsuwa cikin tashar mai aiki.

Za'a iya yin nasarar cire abubuwan rami a kan manyan nisan nesa. Bayan an gudanar da ayyukan kayan aiki a cikin Tuzla, waɗannan abubuwan an daidaita su ne a kan shinge akan shingen da aka gina na musamman, wanda zai iya ba da damar rage ƙananan abubuwan ga tashar da aka shirya a gindin teku. Wadannan abubuwan sai an yi sukuni, suna ba da nauyin da ake buƙata don ragewa da nutsewa.

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray

Shiga wani abu abu ne da yake daukar lokaci mai wahala. A hoton da ke sama, an nuna alamar nutsar zuwa ƙasa. Wannan nau'in ana sarrafa shi ta hanyar sararin samaniya ta hanyar karkatarwa da tsarin kebul da kuma shinge a kan shingen katako suna sarrafa matsayin a tsaye har sai an saukar da sigar har zuwa cikakke a saman ginin. A cikin hoton da ke ƙasa, GPS za ta kula da matsayin sifar a yayin nutsewa. (Hotunan da aka ɗauka daga littafin da Associationungiyar Japanesewararru ta Nazarin Japan da Injinai ke haifarwa.)

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray

Abubuwan da aka nutsar suna haɗuwa tare-da-ƙarshen tare da abubuwan da suka gabata; bayan wannan, ruwan da ke wurin haɗi tsakanin abubuwan haɗin da aka haɗu an drained. Sakamakon aiwatar da aikin ruwa, matsanancin ruwa a wani ƙarshen ɓangaren yana ɗaukar gurnet ɗin roba ta yadda gasket ɗin ba ta da ruwa. An gudanar da abubuwan tallafin na wucin gadi a wuri yayin da aka gama ginin a ƙarƙashin abubuwan. Daga nan sai tashar ta cika sannan kuma aka kara matakan kariya da ake buƙata. Bayan shigar da ƙarshen ramin bututun ƙarfe, wuraren haɗin maɓallin rami da ramin bututu suna cike da kayan cikawa waɗanda ke ba da ruwa. An yi amfani da Machines na rami (TBMs) don nutse a cikin rami mai nutsewa har sai an kai gawar ta nutse.

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray

An rufe saman ramin da murfin baya don tabbatar da kwanciyar hankali da kariya. Duk misalai guda uku suna nuna alamar cikawa daga kundin muƙamuƙi mai kai biyu ta amfani da hanyar tremi. (Hotunan da aka ɗauka daga littafin da Associationungiyar Japanesewararru ta Nazarin Japan da Injinai ta wallafa)

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray

A cikin rami mai nutsewa a ƙarƙashin maɓallin, akwai ɗakuna guda ɗaya mai ɗakuna biyu, kowannensu don kewayon jirgin ƙasa. Abubuwan suna hade gaba daya a cikin ruwan teku wanda saboda bayan ayyukan an yi bayanin martaba na teku kamar wanda aka yi shi a cikin bayanin teku kafin a fara ginin.

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray

Ofaya daga cikin fa'idodin hanyoyin rami mai narkewa shine cewa giciye na cikin rami ana iya shirya shi da kyau gwargwadon takamaiman bukatun kowace rami. Wannan hanyar, zaku iya ganin sassa daban-daban da aka yi amfani da su a duniya cikin hoton da ke sama. An gina bututun da aka nutsar da su ta hanyar abubuwa masu ƙarfi da aka haɗa tare da ko ba tare da abubuwan ƙarfe na ciki ba, waɗanda a baya suna da ko rashin ingantaccen ambulaf na ƙarfe. Sabanin haka, an yi amfani da dabaru masu tasowa a cikin Japan tun shekarun casa'in, ta amfani da abubuwan da ba arfafa ba amma gamsassun hukunce-hukunce da aka shirya ta sandwiching tsakanin amfanoni na ciki da na waje; waɗannan abubuwan daidaitawa tsari cikakke ne. Za'a iya aiwatar da wannan dabarar tare da haɓakar kyakkyawan ruwa mai inganci da ingantaccen kankare. Wannan hanyar na iya kawar da buƙatun da suka shafi aiki da kuma samar da sanduna na ƙarfe da kuma sabuntawa, kuma a cikin dogon lokaci, ta hanyar samar da isasshen kariya ta katako don burbushin ƙarfe, ana iya kawar da matsaloli na haɗari.

CIGABA DA SAURAN TUBE TUNNEL

Tashoshi a ƙarƙashin Istanbul sun ƙunshi cakuda hanyoyin daban-daban.

fasalin kayan marmaray
fasalin kayan marmaray
Ja bangare na titin ɗin ya ƙunshi rami mai zurfi, yayin da ɓangaren fari ana yin shi kamar rami mai amfani da injin mai amfani da rami (TBM), kuma ana yin ɓangaren rawaya ta amfani da Fasaɗar Budewa (C&C) da Sabuwar Hanyar Ruwa ta Austrian (NATM) ko wasu hanyoyin al'ada. . Wannan adadi ya nuna Injinan Ruwa (TBM) tare da lambobin 1,2,3,4 da 5.
An haɗu da hanyoyin ragowa a kan dutse ta amfani da injinan rami (TBMs). Akwai rami a kowane bangare da layin dogo a kowanne daga cikin hanyoyin. An tsara hanyoyin kamar yadda yakamata a tsakanin su sosai don kare su daga cutar da juna sosai. Don samar da yiwuwar tserewa zuwa rami mai layi a cikin gaggawa, an gina takaitattun hanyoyin hanyoyin haɗin kai tsaye a cikin kullun.
Tashoshi a ƙarƙashin birni suna haɗuwa da juna kowane mita 200; don haka, an samar da shi cewa ma'aikatan sabis na iya wucewa sauƙaƙe daga wannan tashar zuwa waccan. Bugu da kari, yayin da hatsari ya afku a duk wata hanyar tono mai, wadannan hanyoyin za su samar da hanyoyin kiyaye lafiya da bayar da dama ga ma'aikatan ceto.
A cikin raunin raƙuman rami (TBM), an ci gaba da cigaba a cikin 20-30 na karshe. Abubuwan misalai suna nuna alamun irin wannan na'ura ta zamani. Dama na garkuwa zai iya wuce mita mita 15 tare da fasahohin da ake ciki.
Aikin zamani na kera na'urorin zamani na iya zama da wahala. Hoton yana amfani da injin fuskoki uku, wanda ake amfani dashi a Japan, don buɗe rami mai siffar mai launi. Ana iya amfani da wannan dabara a inda ake buƙatar dandamali tashar, amma ba buƙatar.
Inda ɓangaren rami ya canza, an yi amfani da wasu ƙwararrun matakai, kazalika da sauran hanyoyin (Sabon Hanyar Tunatarwa ta New Austrian (NATM), zazzagewa da injin buɗe hoto). Anyi amfani da irin waɗannan hanyoyin lokacin rami na tashar Sirkeci, wanda aka shirya a cikin babban falo mai zurfi da aka buɗe a ƙasa. An gina tashoshin biyu daban daban a karkashin kasa ta amfani da dabarun budewa; Wadannan tashoshin suna cikin Yenikapı da Üsküdar. Inda ake amfani da hanyoyin toshe hanyoyin, ana gina waɗannan hanyoyin a matsayin ɓangare guda-akwati guda ɗaya ta amfani da bangon rarrabe tsakanin bangon biyu.
A cikin dukkan tashoshin ruwa da tashoshin ruwa, an sanya keɓancewar ruwa da iska don hana ruwa gudu. Don tashoshin jirgin ƙasa na kewayen birni, za a yi amfani da ka'idodin ƙira irin waɗanda aka yi amfani da su don tashoshin metro ɗin ƙasa. Hotunan da ke gaba suna nuna rami wanda aka gina ta hanyar NATM.
Inda ake buƙatar layin masu haɗin giciye ko layin haɗin gwiwa, ana amfani da hanyoyi daban-daban ta hanyar hadawa. A cikin wannan rami, ana amfani da fasahar TBM da dabarar NATM tare.

FASAHA DA KYAUTA

An yi amfani da tasoshin saukar ruwa tare da bokiti don aiwatar da wasu daga cikin rami na ruwa da ayyukan da aka lalata don rami.
Nishi Ruwa mai zurfi an sanya shi a bakin gabar ruwan Bosphorus. Sabili da haka, an buɗe tashoshi a saman teku mai girma wanda zai iya ɗaukar abubuwan abubuwan gini; Haka kuma, ana gina wannan hanyar ta hanyar da za a iya sa sutura mai rufe fuska da kariya ta bango.
An gudanar da aikin hakar karkashin ruwa da ayyukan lalacewar wannan tafarkin ta hanyar amfani da tsaftar ruwan karkashin kasa da kayan aiki na ruwa. Jimlar adadin ƙasa mai taushi, yashi, tsakuwa da dutsen da aka fitar ya wuce jimlar 1,000,000 m3.
Mafi zurfin ma'anar duka hanyar yana kan hanyar Bosphorus kuma yana da zurfin kusan milimita 44. Tubewan Ruwa: Ana sanya Layer mai kariya na aƙalla nisan mita 2 a kan rami kuma ɓangaren giciye na kusan mituna 9. Don haka, zurfin aiki na dredger ya kai kimanin mita 58.
Akwai iyakataccen adadin nau'ikan kayan aikin da zasu ba da damar yin wannan. An yi amfani da Dredging Dredger da Tug Bucket Dredger don ayyukan allo.
Gigar Bug Dredger shi ne abin hawa mai nauyi wanda aka sanya shi a kan wani jirgin ruwa. Kamar yadda sunan wannan motar ya nuna, yana da buckets biyu ko fiye. Wadannan buckets buckets ne da ke bude lokacin da aka sauke na'urar daga barge kuma an dakatar da shi daga barge kuma an dakatar da shi. Saboda buckets suna da nauyi, sun nutse zuwa teku. Lokacin da aka ɗaga guga daga ƙarƙashin teku, an rufe shi ta atomatik, don haka kayan aikin da aka kai su zuwa ƙasa kuma an sauke su a kan jiragen ta hanyar buckets.
Ƙwararrun gurasar buƙatu mafi rinjaye suna iya gwadawa kamar 25 m3 a cikin maƙallin aiki guda. Yin amfani da ɗawainiyar buckets yana da amfani sosai a cikin laushi zuwa kayan aiki na matsakaici kuma baza a iya amfani da su a cikin kayan aiki masu wuya kamar sandstone da rock. Ɗauki dredges guga yana daya daga cikin tsoffin dredger iri; Duk da haka, ana amfani da su har yanzu a duniya domin irin wadannan tuddai da dredging.
Idan za a bincika ƙasa mai gurbatawa, za a iya sanya wasu kwanduna na roba na bokiti. Wadannan bututun suna hana sakin wasu abubuwan ajiya da kyawawan barbashi zuwa cikin ruwa yayin jujjuyar guga sama daga kasan tekun ko kuma tabbatar da cewa ana iya kiyaye adadin barbashin da aka iyakance.
Amfanin bokiti shi ne cewa abin dogara ne sosai kuma yana da ikon yin digging da bushewa a cikin manyan zurfafa. Rashin daidaituwa shine zurfin rami ya ragu sosai yayin da zurfin ke ƙaruwa, kuma cewa na yanzu a cikin Bosphorus zai shafi daidaito da aiwatarwa gaba ɗaya. Bugu da kari, rami da nunawa ba za a iya yinsu akan kayan aiki mai ƙarfi tare da lafayen ba.
Dredger Bucket Dredger wani jirgin ruwa ne na musamman da aka ɗora shi da nau'in nutsar da nutsar da yankan yankan tare da bututun ruwa. Yayin da jirgin ke tafiya a kan hanya, ƙasar da aka haɗe da ruwa ana tsoma shi daga ƙasan teku a cikin jirgin. Wajibi ne don kwantar da hankali a cikin jirgin. Don cika jirgin a iyakar ƙarfinsa, dole ne a tabbatar cewa babban adadin ruwan saura zai iya gudanowa daga cikin jirgin alhali jirgin yana motsawa. Lokacin da jirgi ya cika, sai ya tafi wurin da ake jujjuyawar sannan ya ɓoye sharar; Bayan haka jirgin yana shirye don sake zagayowar aiki na gaba.
Mafi iko Tow Bucket Dredgers na iya ɗaukar nau'in 40,000 tonnes (kimanin 17,000 m3) na kayan aiki a cikin aiki guda ɗaya kuma zai iya tono da duba zuwa zurfin game da mita 70. Dredger Bucket Dredgers na iya ƙwaƙwalwa da kuma dubawa a cikin laushi zuwa kayan aiki na matsakaici.
Amfani da Dredger Bucket Dredger; ƙarfin da ke da ƙwayar wayar salula ba ya dogara da tsarin tsarin kafa. Abubuwa mara kyau; da kuma rashin daidaito da kuma tsagewa tare da wadannan jiragen ruwa a yankunan kusa da bakin teku.
A cikin tasoshin haɗin ginin tashar rami mai nutsarwa, an tona wasu duwatsun da kuma rami kusa da bakin tekun. An bi hanyoyi daban-daban guda biyu don wannan aikin. Ofaya daga cikin waɗannan hanyoyin shine amfani da ingantacciyar hanyar aikin hako ruwa da fashewa; sauran hanyar kuma ita ce amfani da na'urar inzana na musamman, wanda zai ba da damar dutsen ya fashe ba tare da fashewa ba. Duk hanyoyin suna da jinkirin da tsada.

Kudin Jirgin Ruwa na Zamani

Pts 09

Kasuwancin Gwaiwa

Range 9 @ 08: 00 - Range 11 @ 17: 00

Neman Railway

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

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